Nursing Care Plan for Osteomalacia


A. Basic Concepts of Medical

1. Definition

Osteomalacia or soft bones is softening of the bones due to a lack of vitamin D or a problem with the body's ability to break down and use this vitamin. It causes severe bone pain and muscle weakness.

2. Etiology

The causes of adult osteomalacia are varied, but ultimately result in a vitamin D deficiency:
  • Insufficient nutritional quantities or faulty metabolism of vitamin D or phosphorus
  • Renal tubular acidosis
  • Malnutrition during pregnancy
  • Malabsorption syndrome
  • Hypophosphatemia
  • Chronic renal failure
  • Tumor-induced osteomalacia
  • Long-term anticonvulsant therapy
  • Coeliac disease
  • Cadmium poisoning, Itai-itai disease

3. Symptoms
  • Bone fractures that happen without a real injury
  • Muscle weakness
  • Widespread bone pain, especially in the hips

Symptoms may also occur due to low calcium levels. These include:
  • Numbness around the mouth
  • Numbness of the arms and legs
  • Spasms of the hands or feet

4.Evaluasi Diagnostic
In the photo x - ray commonly seen deficiency of bone mineral is very real. Based on the vertebrae with compression fractures may indicate pain at the end vertebra. Laboratory tests showed slow average serum calcium and phosphorus as well as the lack of increase in the number of alkaline phosfat. Urinary excretion of calcium and creatinine slow.

B. Basic Concepts in Nursing Care Plan for Osteomalacia

1. Assessment

Patients with osteomalacia often complain of bone pain is usually in the lower back and extremities mingled weakness. Overview of discomfort still vague, the patient may have a fracture, during the interview, inform about the real problems are in connection with the disease (malabsorption syndrome), and dietary habits can be known.

On physical examination, deformity skletal noted, spinal deformity, and deformity of the long bones are bent unfamiliarity may give the appearance of the patient and how to run a lackluster / weak. There may be muscle weakness, patients may be unhappy with the performance.

2. Nursing Diagnosis for Osteomalacia

Based on assessment data, nursing diagnoses primary that may occur, including the following:
  1. Acute Pain related to weakness and possible fracture.
  2. Knowledge Deficit: about the disease process and treatment procedures.
  3. Disturbance of self-concept related to swelling in the legs, gait sluggish / weak, and spinal deformity.
Nursing Management of Osteomalacia